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Interpreting SAT, PSAT-related, and SAT Subject Test Scores

These resources provide important information about test characteristics, validity, reliability, norms, scaling, and growth across assessments.

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Description

Percentage of Students with Junior-Year Score Gain or Loss (.pdf/586 KB)

This table shows changes in scores between fall and spring of junior year.

Percentage of Students with Senior-Year Score Gain or Loss (.pdf/558 KB)

This table shows changes in scores between spring of junior year and fall of senior year.

Student-Level Growth Estimates for the SAT Suite of Assessments (.pdf/5.23 MB)

This report describes the methodology used to estimate individual growth and to provide the results of the growth estimates for particular SAT Suite growth reporting groups.

School-Level Growth Estimates for the SAT Suite of Assessments (.pdf/2.57 MB)

This report describes the methodology used to estimate school-level growth and to provide the results of the growth estimates for particular SAT Suite growth reporting groups.

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Description

SAT Understanding Scores (.pdf/791 KB)

Includes percentiles, standard error of measurement (SEM), and scoring details.

SAT Percentiles by Subgroup (.pdf/263 KB)

PSAT/NMSQT Score Information

PSAT 10 Understanding Scores (.pdf/666 KB)

PSAT 8/9 Score Information

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Description

Validity of the SAT for Predicting First-Year Grades and Retention to the Second Year (.pdf/2.58 MB)

This study demonstrates the strong relationships between SAT scores and first-year college GPA and second-year retention.

Using the SAT to Support Student Success on Campus (.pdf/324. KB) This paper discusses the utility and value of SAT scores for informing important campus decisions about retention, degree completion, and students’ areas of academic weaknesses that need strengthening.

Validity of SAT Essay Scores for Predicting First-Year Grades (.pdf/2.2 MB)

This study shares information on the utility and value of the SAT essay for use in college admission, placement, and advising.

Differential Validity and Prediction of the SAT (.pdf/2.7 MB)

This study shares information on SAT score relationships with college performance by key student and institutional subgroups.

Validity of SAT for Predicting First-Semester, Domain-Specific Grades (.pdf/1.53 MB)

This study shows strong, positive relationships between SAT section scores, test scores, cross-test scores, and subscores with domain-specific course grades earned in college, demonstrating that the SAT is sensitive to instruction in English language arts, math, science, and history/social studies.

College Board National Curriculum Survey Report 2019 (.pdf/1.38 MB)

This report details the results of a nationally representative survey of college readiness prerequisites and middle- and high-school teaching and learning in literacy and math. The results suggest that the SAT is a robust measure of essential college and career readiness and success prerequisites.

Validity of the SAT for Enrollment-Related Decisions: Focus on International Students Attending College in the U.S. (.pdf/877 KB)

This study shows the positive relationships between SAT scores and academic performance of international students attending colleges and universities in the U.S.

Examining the Validity of the SAT at Higher Education Institutions Outside of the U.S. (.pdf/674 KB)

This study shows the positive relationships between SAT scores and academic performance of students attending higher education institutions outside of the U.S.

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Description

Test Specifications for the Redesigned SAT (.pdf/2.65 MB)

Full specifications for the redesigned SAT. Includes evidentiary foundations for redesign, as well as sample questions.

SAT Suite of Assessments Technical Manual (.pdf/2.21 MB)

Document outlying the characteristics of the SAT.

SAT Suite of Assessments Technical Manual – Appendix (Part 1) (.pdf/27.3 MB)

First part of the appendix to accompany the Technical Manual that includes descriptions and references to fairness, test development, requirements, psychometrics, and validity.

SAT Suite of Assessments Technical Manual – Appendix (Part 2) (.pdf/26.9 MB)

Second part of the appendix to accompany the Technical Manual that includes descriptions and references to fairness, test development, requirements, psychometrics, and validity.

Scaling for the SAT Suite of Assessments (.pdf/2.51 MB)

An overview of scaling, scaling study design, new SAT scaling, characteristics of the PSAT/NMSQT, PSAT 10, and PSAT 8/9 vertical scalings, and subscore scaling.

Comparability of Performance on the SAT Suite of Assessments Across Pencil-and-Paper and Computer-Based Modes of Administration (.pdf/2 MB)

This report summarizes findings from three studies comparing paper and digital assessments.​

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Description

Guide to the 2018 ACT/SAT Concordance (.pdf/294 KB)

Concordance tables to compare SAT and ACT scores, along with supplemental information.

2018 ACT-SAT Concordance Tables (.xlsx/40 KB)

Concordance tables in spreadsheet format.

Concordance Tables: New SAT Scores to Old SAT Scores (.xlsx/36 KB)

Includes concordance instructions and concordance tables comparing new to old SAT scores.

Concordance Tables: Old SAT Scores to New SAT Scores (.xlsx/40 KB)

Includes concordance instructions and concordance tables comparing old to new SAT scores.

Table

Description

Subject Test Percentile Ranks (.pdf/660 KB)

Percentiles compare students who took the same Subject Test, and are used to find out how students performed on the test.

Subject Test Subscore Percentile Ranks (.pdf/545 KB)

Subject Tests in Languages—Total Score and Subscore Percentile Ranks for Students Who Studied a Language in High School (.pdf/526 KB)

Subject Tests in Languages — Performance by Years of Study (.pdf/506 KB)

Use this table to find out how scores change with varying levels of language instruction.

SAT Subject Tests—Test Characteristics (.pdf/322 KB)

This table shows that Subject Tests are reliable and appropriately difficult.