This study analyzed the extent to which SAT scores affirm, exceed, or fall short of students’ HSGPAs, within the 2023 high school graduating class. Findings show that for most students – including underrepresented minority students – submitting a score would likely only strengthen their application. When we analyze the size and composition of these student SAT-HSGPA performance groups over time, we see very stable trends. This analysis can inform discussions of the importance of multiple measures in the college application process.
Over the past several years, content experts, psychometricians, and researchers have been hard at work developing, refining, and studying the digital SAT. This paper shares key learnings from research studies that have informed the design and development of the digital SAT and our understanding of how well the assessment is working for its intended uses.
A college GPA of 2.00 or higher has signified that a student has made acceptable academic progress and avoided academic probation. This study examined two long-term academic outcomes, completion, and cumulative GPA, of students enrolled at four-year institutions, particularly those with first-year GPAs between 2.00 and 2.99, often referred to as the murky middle. Results were disappointing in terms of their later outcomes. Given the implications of a low but acceptable first-year GPA, early identification of students who may benefit from particular academic advising initiatives as they transition to college is key.
This study analyzed relationships between digital SAT scores and early college outcomes, including first-year GPA, particular course grades, and course credits earned. Results show that digital SAT scores are as predictive of college performance as paper and pencil SAT scores and they continue to meaningfully improve our ability to predict college performance above HSGPA alone. Results hold for student subgroups examined and were particularly strong for students majoring in STEM fields.
This study represents the first opportunity to examine digital SAT® score relationships with college performance. Results show that digital SAT scores are as predictive of college performance as paper and pencil SAT scores, and they continue to meaningfully improve the prediction of college performance above high school GPA alone.
This study provides initial evidence that digital SAT scores can be used in the same way as current SAT scores. The strength of the relationship between students’ digital SAT scores with their HSGPAs, PSAT/NMSQT Total scores, and Average AP Exam scores parallel the strength of the relationships between the current SAT and these measures. We expect digital SAT relationships with student outcomes, such as first-year GPA, to parallel those found with the current SAT.
This study shows that SAT scores are valuable predictors of bachelor’s degree completion in four years, including when controlling for HSGPA. Results confirm that institutions can use SAT scores with confidence when making admissions, placement, scholarship/honors programs, instructional support, and academic advising decisions.
This study provides strong evidence that the SAT can be a useful tool for understanding and evaluating student readiness for CTE programs and students’ subsequent success in these programs. In particular, we can see that many lower performing students on the SAT can still be successful in the CTE programs studied, and as expected, stronger SAT performance is associated with more positive outcomes for these students.
This study provides an updated understanding of the relationship between a student’s self-reported high school grade point average (HSGPA) and their institution-provided HSGPA, presumably based on the student’s actual high school transcript.
This study shows how the SAT and HSGPA can work together to help institutions confidently admit, place, and support students in their academic majors while promoting student opportunity and success as well as institutional health and success. Findings also show how the SAT can be used to increase diversity in STEM fields.
This study demonstrates the utility and value of Landscape context information, as well as SAT scores, and HSGPA for campus retention analyses, critical academic advising conversations, and related resource allocation on campus.
This study demonstrates the strong utility and value of SAT scores in scholarship decisions, in admission decisions to honors or other selective academic programs, for states that want to continue or start incorporating SAT scores in statewide scholarship programs, and for institutions that want to use SAT to identify top students to recruit for scholarships or selective academic programs on campus.
This study shows strong, positive relationships between SAT section scores, test scores, cross-test scores, and subscores with domain-specific course grades earned in college, demonstrating that the SAT is sensitive to instruction in English language arts, math, science, and history/social studies.
This report details the results of a nationally representative survey of college readiness prerequisites and middle- and high-school teaching and learning in literacy and math. The results suggest that the SAT is a robust measure of essential college and career readiness and success prerequisites.
This study shows that the validity of the SAT for predicting FYGPA remains stable and strong across cohorts, and that the SAT is essentially as predictive of the longer-term college outcomes analyzed in this study as it is of first-year college outcomes.