Educators are increasingly focused on ensuring that students experience a rigorous curriculum in high school and graduate college and career ready. One way of introducing rigorous course work is to have students take college-level work, often in the form of either an AP® course and exam or a dual enrollment course. This study compared the outcomes of students who participated in either program and graduated high school in 2006.
Strong academic performance in college, as measured by first-year grades, is important for a host of reasons, but perhaps the most critical reason is that students who perform well in their first year of college are more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree (Adelman, 2006). Research shows that Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) students, particularly those who earn higher AP Exam scores, are likely to earn higher first-year grade point averages (GPAs) and higher subject-area GPAs in college than students who do not take an AP Exam.
In this study, we compare Spring Board® (SB) schools that had continuously used the SB English Language Arts (ELA) curriculum for at least three years with comparable non-SB schools. For high schools, the outcomes examined were school-level AP® participation and performance for a) all AP subjects, b) ELA and social science AP subjects, and c) ELA only subjects. AP performance was defined as the percentage of students among graduating seniors scoring 3 or higher in at least one AP Exam. We report comparison results for all students in schools, and for three subgroups — black, Hispanic, and first-generation college-going students. For middle schools, the outcome examined was school-level FCAT reading scores among eighth-graders.
Between 2002 and 2012, the number of Hispanic/Latino first-time, degree-seeking students across all sectors doubled from 236,000 to 475,000. In 2002, these students comprised 10% of all first-time, degree-seeking students, and by 2012 their share had increased to 16%.
In 2008, the number of Hispanic/Latino high school graduates exceeded the number of black/African American high school graduates for the first time. However, it was not until 2011 that the number of first-time, degree-seekingHispanic/Latino postsecondary students outnumberedblack/African American students.
Between 2002 and 2012, the number of black/African American first-time, degree-seeking students at for-profit colleges and universities quadrupled, peaking in 2010 before declining slightly over the past few years.
Over the decade spanning 2002 through 2012, college applicationvolume increased across thecollege selectivity spectrum. In fact, over this period, the Most Competitive colleges (Barron’scategory 1) and the colleges classified by Barron’s as Competitive (Barron’s category 4) both experienced an 81% increase in first-time, first-year, degree-seeking applications.
The admission rates decreased in all Barron’s competitiveness categories between 2002 and 2012. The steepest decrease was found among the Most Competitive colleges, where the admission rate decreased from 31% to 22%.
The yield rate decreased between 2002 and 2012. Less selective colleges tended to experience sharper dips in yieldover this period than did moreselective colleges. The yield rate fell from 52% in 2002 to 34% in 2012 at colleges in the Less Competitive Barron’s category.
This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship bewtween SAT® scores and important college outcomes.
Historically, AP Potential™ correlations and expectancy tables have been based on 10th-and 11th-grade PSAT/NMSQT® examinees and 11th-and 12th-grade AP® examinees for all subjects (Zhang, Patel, & Ewing,2014; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Camara & Millsap, 1998). However, a large number of students take AP European History and AP World History Exams in 10th grade. The purpose of this addendum is to provide updated correlations and expectancy tables for AP European History and AP World History Exam scores that incorporate into the analyses students who took the PSAT/NMSQT in ninth grade and the AP Exam in 10th grade along with the other grade levels that have always formed the basis for the AP Potential predictions.
- Students from lower-income families have the greatest need for college counseling, yet have the least access to counselors.
- Inadequate school finances, insufficient counselor training programs, and a lack of clarity about how school counselors should allocate their time generate barriers to effective college counseling.
- A substantial number of novel counseling, coaching, and mentoring programs demonstrate effectiveness at increasing FAFSA completion, college application, college.
- Students tend to submit too few college applications and do notapply to enough “reach” and“match” colleges.
- The application barriers they face may be procedural,geographical, cultural,informational, or financial.
- Potential solutions to reduce and remove these barriers includeprograms that substantially alterthe usual application processes,provide information about andsupport outreach by colleges,promote the use of collegeapplication fee waivers, andimprove college counseling.
The study presented here is an investigation and comparison of the relationships between the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) and dual-enrolled high school courses and college outcomes. Previous research provides evidence that participation in AP, and subsequent success on AP Exams, is positively related to various college outcomes including an increased likelihood of graduating from college and better preparation for the academic rigor of the college classroom. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the value of advanced course work in high school in preparing students for higher education success by investigating the relationships between participation and performance in AP courses and exams, dual enrollment courses, and regular courses and four different college outcomes including first-year subject-specific GPA, final subject-specific GPA, calendar time to bachelor’s degree, and credit hours attempted. Results indicated that higher performance on AP Exams was related to higher college performance in the subject area, as well as fewer credit hours taken to bachelor’s degree. Most dual enrollment course grades were at a C or higher, and students taking these courses tended to graduate from college in fewer calendar terms than other groups.