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Does College Readiness Translate to College Completion?

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Date: 
2014-01-02
Krista D. Mattern
Jessica Marini
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Does College Readiness Translate to College Completion?
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The current study examines the relationship between the SAT® College Readiness Benchmark with the outcome of graduation from college in either four or six years. The results indicate that the SAT benchmark is indeed differentiating between those students who graduate within four years and those who do not, as well as between those who graduate within six years and those who do not. The data were further disaggregated by student characteristics of gender, ethnicity, best spoken language, household income, and highest parental education. Even within student subgroups, differences in graduation rates for students who were college ready versus those who did not meet the SAT benchmark persisted. The results from the current study provide additional validity evidence for the use of the benchmark as a measure of college readiness and as a crucial tool in guiding educational interventions and policy that promote college success for all students.

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A Comparison of CLEP® and Non-CLEP Students with Respect to Postsecondary Outcomes

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A Comparison of CLEP® and Non-CLEP Students with Respect to Postsecondary Outcomes
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The College-Level Examination Program® (CLEP ®) is an exam program consisting of 33 exams in five subject areas that typically correspond to single-semester courses, but some correspond to full-year or two-year courses. CLEP exams offer students the opportunity to receive college course credit for learning that has already occurred outside of the traditional college classroom. The current research provides a necessary step in understanding the relationship between receiving course credit via exam scores and important postsecondary outcomes by examining whether differences exist between CLEP and non-CLEP students on postsecondary performance outcomes. The study examined data for matched samples of CLEP and non-CLEP students from a large, diverse state in the southeastern United States. Overall, CLEP students graduate sooner, enroll in fewer semesters, graduate with fewer credits, and have GPAs higher than non-CLEP students, when controlling for demographics and prior achievement. Generally, the differences between CLEP and non-CLEP students were more pronounced for students receiving associate degrees than for students receiving bachelor’s degrees. CLEP students also tended to perform better than non-CLEP students in subsequent English courses. There were no differences for subsequent math course performance.

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College Access and Success Among High School Graduates Taking the SAT: Asian American Students

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Date: 
2013-06-04
Mary E. M. McKillip
Philip E. Mackey
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This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among Asian American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories (high aspirations, high-perceived ability, high-assessed ability) were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges within one year after graduating high school in 2004 and in 2010. Students in these top categories among the 2004 cohort were also more likely to graduate from a four-year college six years later. We find positive trends among Asian American SAT takers when comparing 2004 to 2010. Asian American students participated at a high rate on the SAT and AP® in both years, with increases from 2004 to 2010 in these participation rates as well as in the proportion of students scoring a 3 or higher on an AP Exam. Asian American SAT takers have high and stable college enrollment rates, and we found an increase among SAT takers in students with high aspirations and self-perceived ability. These positive trends, combined with the finding that relationships between student characteristics and college enrollment in 2010 were often quite similar to the relationships seen in 2004, suggest that an increased number of Asian American students may be graduating with college degrees in the coming years. We also find an increased proportion of Asian American SAT takers who report bilingualism, suggesting that we may see an increased number of college graduates who are bilingual in the coming years as well.

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College Access and Success Among High School Graduates Taking the SAT: Native American Students

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Date: 
2013-06-04
Mary E. M. McKillip
Philip E. Mackey
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This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among Native American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by various student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories (high aspirations, high perceived ability, high assessed ability) were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges within one year after graduating from high school in 2004 and in 2010. Students in these top categories among the 2004 cohort were also more likely to graduate from a four-year college six years later. We found patterns seen in previous research: Female students and students whose parents went to college tended to have more positive college outcomes. Additionally, we found some positive trends among Native American SAT takers when comparing 2004 with 2010: increases in Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) participation and scores of 3 or higher, in four-year college enrollment, and in the number of students whose parents have college degrees. These positive trends, combined with the finding that relationships between student characteristics and college enrollment in 2010 were often quite similar to the relationships seen in 2004, suggest that an increased number of Native American students may graduate with college degrees in the coming years.
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College Access and Success Among High School Graduates Taking the SAT: Latino Students

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Date: 
2013-05-17
Mary E. M. McKillip
Philip E. Mackey
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College Access and Success Among High School Graduates Taking the SAT: Latino Students
Abstract: 

This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among Latino SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by various student characteristics including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories (high aspirations, high perceived ability, high assessed ability) were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges within one year after graduating from high school in 2004 and in 2010. Students in these top categories among the 2004 cohort were also more likely to have graduated from a four-year college six years later. We found patterns seen previously in research: Females and students whose parents went to college tended to have more positive college outcomes. Additionally, we found an increase in SAT participation, Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) participation, two-year college enrollment, and an increase in students with high aspirations and self-perceived ability. These positive trends, combined with the finding that relationships between student characteristics and college enrollment in 2010 were quite similar to the relationships seen in 2004, suggest that an increased number of Latino students may graduate with college degrees in the coming years. We also find an increased proportion of Latino SAT takers who report bilingualism, suggesting that we may see an increased number of college graduates who are bilingual in the coming years as well.

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College Access and Success Among High School Graduates Taking the SAT: African American Students

Publication Information
Date: 
2013-05-17
Mary E. M. McKillip
Philip E. Mackey
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This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among African American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by various student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories were the most likely to enroll in four-year colleges within one year after graduating from high school in 2004 and in 2010. Students in these top categories among the 2004 cohort were also more likely to graduate from a four-year college six years later. Also, African American females and students whose parents went to college tended to be more likely to enroll and graduate from college, although we did see increases in the proportion of males participating in the SAT as well as increases in examinees whose parents had a college degree. Additionally, we found an increase in SAT participation, Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) participation, two-year college enrollment, and an increase in SAT takers with high aspirations and self-perceived ability. These positive trends, combined with the finding that relationships between student characteristics and college enrollment in 2010 were often quite similar to the relationships seen in 2004, suggest that an increased number of African American students may graduate with college degrees in the coming years.

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An Investigation of College Students' Perceptions of Advanced Placement Courses

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Date: 
2013-04-08
Siobhan M. Cooney
Mary E. M. McKillip
Kara Smith
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The present study investigates how current college students perceive their experiences in high school Advanced Placement Program (AP) courses. The goal of this research was twofold: We wanted to not only add to the existing literature on outcomes for AP students but also investigate possible benefits for students without success (i.e., a score of 3 or higher) on at least one AP Exam. For the purposes of this research, the College Board Advanced Placement Program partnered with a large public university in the southwestern United States. In April 2012, freshmen and sophomores who had taken at least one AP course in high school were recruited via the university’s email system. Participants (n = 128) completed an online survey that included closed- and open-ended items. About two-thirds of participants reported taking an AP Exam for each of their AP courses. Although three-quarters of participants reported scoring a 1 or 2 on one or more exams, only a small subset (n = 16) did not have AP Exam success; one participant had never taken an AP Exam, and 15 participants had never scored higher than a 2 on an AP Exam. Participants on the whole tended to report that their AP courses were of high quality, challenging, and ultimately beneficial in terms of improving specific skills (including writing, test taking, revising work based on feedback, balancing study time with competing demands, and analyzing the strengths and flaws of different points of view) and giving them the confidence to believe that they could do well in college. Participants were largely in agreement that their AP teachers were passionate about their subject areas and had high expectations for their students. The importance of students’ AP teachers was also reflected in many open-ended responses: Teaching quality reportedly affected not only how much students enjoyed the experience but also how much they benefited from each of their AP courses. Students without AP Exam success tended to report positive AP course experiences and a range of benefits attributed to their AP courses. Their responses were very similar to those of students with AP Exam success; only a few small differences were noted. Given the small number of participants in this study, particularly when focusing on those without AP Exam success, further research is recommended with a larger sample.

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SAT Subject Area Readiness Indicators: Reading, Writing, and STEM

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Date: 
2012-11-29
Jeffrey N. Wyatt
Mylene Remigio
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In 2011, the College Board developed the SAT College and Career Readiness Benchmark to assist educators and policymakers in their efforts to better evaluate the college readiness of their students. This benchmark was designed to identify the point on the SAT score scale that is indicative of students’ having a high likelihood of success in college, with “success” being defined as a 65% probability of obtaining a first-year GPA (FYGPA) of 2.67 (B-) or higher. This criterion was informed by a panel of expert educators and policymakers convened by the College Board in 2007 (Kobrin, Patterson, Wiley, & Mattern, 2012).

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Engaging Strategies for All Students: The SpringBoard Example

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Date: 
2005-01-01
Jane Delgado
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SpringBoard is a comprehensive instructional program in English language arts and mathematics that reflects powerful, research-based understandings about how people learn. This report presents a model of learning based on cognitive science with particular attention to the role of memory and language. The instructional framework of strategic learning that follows from this model provides the basis for the SpringBoard program’s incorporation of rigorous content and training in strategic activities and skills. Finally, the research base for the SpringBoard program is reviewed and summarized, first for the program overall and then for each set of strategies incorporated in the instructional design: reading, writing, oral proficiency, collaboration, and problem solving.

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Pre-AP Science Vertical Teams Summer Institute Evaluation Summary: A One-Year Follow-Up

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Date: 
2012-09-12
Vytas Laitusis
Carol Barry
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This study evaluated the effect of a pilot Pre-AP® Science Vertical Team Summer Institute on teacher practices and perceptions of the program. The overarching goals of the Vertical Teams Institute were focused on the tools needed to build or strengthen an AP Vertical Team and to align science curriculum across grade levels. The evaluation also surveyed a sample of the initial attendees one year after the institute to assess their perceptions of the institute and practices in the classroom following a year of implementation in the school.

The results seem to indicate an initial positive effect with respect to anticipated changes in classroom practice as a result of participation in the institute.  Results of the Follow-Up Survey seem to indicate that the positive ratings that the institutes received immediately after the PD were maintained after one year of implementation in the school. However, caution regarding the stability and generalizability of these results is warranted because most of the ratings were lower and because the sample size for the follow-up was relatively small.
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