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Interpreting SAT and SAT Subject Test scores

SAT Program data provide important information about test characteristics, prediction, validity and reliability.

Below is a list of data tables for use in interpreting SAT and Subject Test scores. SAT tables on this page reflect the old SAT. For information on interpreting scores for the new SAT, see Understanding Scores.

These tables are available for download in PDF format.

Requires Adobe Reader (latest version recommended).




Percentage of Students with Senior Year Score Gain or Loss (.pdf/147KB)

These tables show changes in scores over time.

SAT Subject Tests

Test Performance



Subject Test Percentile Ranks (.pdf/752KB)

Percentiles compare students who took the same Subject Test, and are used to find out how students performed on the test.

Subject Test Subscore Percentile Ranks (.pdf/165KB)

Subject Tests in Languages — Total Score and Subscore Percentile Ranks for Students Who Studied a Language in High School (.pdf/244KB)

Performance by Years of Study



Subject Tests in Languages — Performance by Years of Study (.pdf/224KB)

Use this table to find out how scores change with varying levels of language instruction.

Subject Tests Characteristics (Reliability, Difficulty Levels, Completion Rates)



SAT Subject Tests—Test Characteristics (.pdf/322KB)

This table shows that Subject Tests are reliable and appropriately difficult.